Three-dimensional genome organization is essential for gene regulation

Interactions between distinct chromosomes and various fragments of the same chromosomes have been showed to play an important role in genetic regulation.

Comparison of human and chimpanzee stem cells provided vast data about changes in 3D genome organization during 6-7 million years of evolution.

Both close interactions between DNA molecule fragments and wider TAD (Topologically Associating Domains) relations, coupled with all gene data, explained some of the regulatory differences between species.

Close (“low-order”) genome organization was in 96% similar. In contrast to that finding, out of all broad TAD boundaries, only 46% were common, 32% human-specific, and 22% chimpanzee-specific. Simultaneously, gene regulation and activation were significantly influenced by genome organization differences.

More: “Reorganization of 3D Genome Structure May Contribute to Gene Regulatory Evolution in Primates”, I. Eres et al., 2018, doi.org/10.1101/474841.